Congress recently introduced three proposed revisions to the No Child Left Behind Act. NCLB, enacted in 2001, has been up for renewal since 2007, but there's been little promise of an actual replacement for this flawed approach to education policy since then.
Iowa progressive Tom Harkin was one of the first to introduce a revised education bill this last week. The 1150-page bill is not perfect by any means, but it does contain important changes to NCLB. For example, the bill moves away from the hated “Adequate Yearly Progress” (AYP) aspect of NCLB, which many say has lead to a climate of fear and punishment in our nation’s public schools. It does, unfortunately, retain the standardized testing for students in grades 3-8 that helped create the AYP mess in the first place.
Still, while Harkin’s bill keeps the current heavy emphasis on standardized testing, it also lessens the impact these test results will have on teacher, principal, and school evaluations. Under Harkin’s bill, schools would also be allowed to evaluate students using portfolios of their work.
This aspect of the bill is an important step forward, and it should be taken seriously. In my career as a college English teacher, I have come to really appreciate using a portfolio model of assessment with students. First, it requires students to put together a folder of their own work, and then comment on it. Second, students must, if they are to do well, reflect on their own work and provide feedback on it, as well as on the class as a whole. This method of evaluation is far removed from the world of standardized testing, where the illusion of objectivity is used to reward students who do well on such tests.
I have also seen the portfolio model work well in public schools that practice a progressive approach to education. These schools, such as Barton Open in Minneapolis, show that it is possible to give even kindergarteners a hand in assessing and presenting their own work, making them important partners in their own education. This approach to assessment encourages creativity in students and teachers, which is a hallmark of the American education system and something we would do well to emphasize.
Harkin’s bill will most likely not go anywhere. Conservatives Senator Lamar Alexander and Minnesota Congressman John Kline both introduced their own bills right after Harkin, which further push the federal government out of education. There is division among conservatives over this approach, and this, along with the competing Harkin bill, means that any true, national progress in education policy will most likely not take place any time soon.
More information on the three proposed bills can be found here.
As policymakers focus more on the state and national education system "catching up," they're increasing emphasis on STEM fields: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. The idea behind this is that that students currently are unprepared for the workforce, and must adapt to the changing market for science and math related job openings. Technology in particular certainly is a booming industry, and it is hard to argue that teaching the “hard sciences” does have real value.
However, as 2020’s Alex Christiansen has pointed out, these job vacancies do not come close to telling the whole story on unemployment. Currently, Minnesota only leaves 2.3% of jobs unfilled, and of those vacancies, only 42% require post-secondary education. That means if the right education was what matters, especially past high school, unemployment should be a lot closer to .966% than the current 5.4. Our problem is not generally a shortage of qualified workers, but rather too much competition in a job market that is too small, and that is not a problem that focused education is going to solve.
So if specialized higher education is not the key to solving unemployment, why is it that schools keep emphasizing college and other post-secondary education? That answer lies in the fact that of the job vacancies in Minnesota, 53% are part time or temporary. If we assume that close to all jobs requiring post-secondary education, not just accepting it, are full time and permanent, that means that only about 5% of vacancies offer a real chance at a living wage for those with only a high school education, all of approximately 2400 openings. It should come as little surprise then that 11% of Minnesotans live below the poverty line, and over 10,000 find themselves homeless on a given night.
There are real issues to be addressed in how we are educating our children, but to say that content of education is the driving factor behind wage gaps and poverty misses the point. As education gets more and more competitive, more people find themselves losing, unable to keep up with increasing academic demands. These people cannot be left to fend for themselves in a market that does not value their work, or even give them the opportunity to work at all. As recent movements show, far too many people doing necessary and hard work are being left out of the wage gap conversation, and specialized education will not rectify that.
In modern political discourse, “sustainability” is a buzzword associated strongly with the left. Liberal politicians are assumed to espouse environmental stewardship as an automatic add-on. And in light of ever-urgent climate change, we’ve begun to drop terms like environmentalism and instead employ the broad umbrella of “sustainability.”
If you ask those at the forefront of the sustainability movement, though, environmental issues comprise only part of the equation. True sustainability is all-inclusive, encompassing social justice, health and wellness of both humans and ecological systems, and security and resilience in the economy.
This definition is characterized by ethical and thoughtful attention to all interactions between nature and society and can be approached from political, economic, social, and biocentric angles. Institutions routinely benefit from implementing systems that integrate sustainability measures into their everyday operations, and these benefits manifest in areas that matter to everyone, not just green radicals.
An easy place to start is with purchasing. In our consumer culture where virtually everything requires some sort of material supplies, often there are more sustainable alternatives to the status quo. The Responsible Purchasing Network provides guidelines and resources for establishing a sustainable procurement policy in businesses and institutions, offering simple steps to designate products that carry less environmental baggage and offer financial savings, especially long-term.
Some coalitions supporting sustainability are tailored to different business needs and structures. The Green Restaurants Association is one example. AASHE, The Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, outlines frameworks, resources and opportunities for sustainability in the context of a university campus. LEED, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, has transformed the architectural community so that new construction projects that integrate environmental, economic, and social benefits are more attainable and more common.
Even local governments have jumped on the bandwagon. The U.S. Conference of Mayors’ Climate Protection Agreement is a coalition of mayors who pledge to reduce carbon emissions in their cities along the lines of the Kyoto Protocol. ICLEI, the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, has created guidelines for urban sustainability with categories like resilient, biodiverse, low-carbon, resource-efficient and so on.
Not just environmental nonprofits and liberal arts colleges like Macalester, the one I attend, have the capacity for and will accrue benefits from adopting sustainability measures. I’ll delve more deeply into various options in later posts. But it’s important to remember this: sustainability is a strategy to consume resources our wisely so as not to inhibit the prosperity of future generations. In this way, sustainability is, at its core, a pragmatic stance that should appeal to individuals, institutions, businesses and policymakers.
This post will probably get me slammed for having low expectations, but the content needs to be seen. For quick background, even high estimates [PDF] figure 36% of Minnesota's workforce will need a bachelor's degree or higher by 2018; the other 64% will need community college coursework or be fine with a high school diploma. A new study [PDF] by the National Center on Education and the Economy examined what skills community college students in popular fields like nursing and computer programming needed. Here are a few things going wrong with math:
Placement Tests Don't Measure What's Needed
We hear a lot about how many college students get put in remedial courses – in Minnesota, estimates go as high as 40% – and being put in such courses is a strong predictor of whether students leave college with a degree or just with debt.
However, the tests that put students in those courses aren't aligned with the actual math needed for their coursework. As the report puts it, “[M]any students are being denied entry to credit-bearing courses at our community colleges who are in fact prepared to do mathematics that will be required of them in their applied programs.”
High School Aims at the Wrong Target
So what is required of students? High school pushes everyone through at least Algebra II. However, the report finds students don't need more than “Algebra 1.25.” They are, however, missing key skills in areas like statistics and real-world applications that go untaught or undertaught.
Many Students Can't Do the Middle School Math They Do Need
Consider these three statements from the report:
- “[T]he mathematics needed by first year students in these courses is almost exclusively middle school mathematics.”
- “Whatever students did to pass mathematics courses in middle school, it does not appear to require learning the concepts in any durable way.”
- “It makes no sense to rush through the middle school mathematics curriculum in order to get to advanced algebra as rapidly as possible.”
In other words, we've created a system of math education that's forcing too many students through an ever-accelerating sequence of skills they don't need at the expense of the deeper learning and true understanding of math they do need. Some students absolutely should be building towards and through calculus while in high school. Most shouldn't, and we need to talk more about what they should be doing instead.
In a move that could shrink their revenues, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota and UnitedHealthcare are offering 700 free children's bicycle helmets and reflectors this afternoon on a a first-come-first-served basis at five Twin Cities Boys and Girls Club locations and three Minneapolis parks.
The freebies mark Children's recent designation as Minnesota's only Level I dedicated pediatric trauma center, "which means we have met the highest standards of expertise and level of preparation to care for injured children," said spokesperson Erin Keifenheim.
More helmeted kids on bikes, however, should mean less demand for trauma treatment. Volunteers will offer safety tips along with helmet fitting.
"We know that kids 5 to 14 are seen in emergency departments related to biking more than any other sport," Kristi Moline, Children's chief of injury prevention, told MPR News. "And now that we're entering summer season and kids are out of school, we will see an increase in bicycle-related injuries."
Each stop on the giveaway tour will last about a half-hour. The sessions at Boys and Girls Clubs are open to club day campers only. The schedule:
- 1:30 p.m. Southside Village Boys and Girls Club, 701 E. 39th St., Minneapolis.
- 1:30 p.m. Jerry Gamble Boys and Girls Club, 2410 Irving Av. N., Minneapolis.
- 1:50 p.m. East Side Boys and Girls Club, 1620 E. Ames Av., St. Paul.
- 1:50 p.m. Mount Airy Boys and Girls Club, 91 E. Arch St., St. Paul.
- 2:20 p.m. Lake Nokomis Park, Minneapolis.
- 2:30 p.m. Lake Harriet bankshell, Minneapolis.
- 2:40 p.m. West Side Boys and Girls Club, 291 Belvidere St. E., St. Paul.
- 2:45 p.m. Minnehaha Park, Minneapolis.
Bravo to health institutions that take extra steps to stop injuries before they happen. If you know a child who bikes without head protection, get him or her to one of these locations.
More than 500,000 acres of permanent grassland habitat in Minnesota's pheasant range lie along roadsides, a little known and often despoiled resource for wildlife proliferation and environmental preservation.
"Grassy roadsides can be for the birds!" according to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. "Researchers have found them to be highly productive nesting sites for more than 40 kinds of birds and animals that nest on the ground or in low vegetation."
And that ain't all. In Florida, the transportation department is studying how to help feral bees thrive along highways in hopes of restoring declining pollinator populations that are vital to the state's farm yields. Researchers at Iowa State University have identified a dozen native plants that attract pollinators and urged their planting in the narrow strips not devoted to cash crops in these days of high corn and soybean prices.
Roadsides are "the last refuge, the last vestige of hope" for ground-nesting birds such as quail, pheasants, meadowlarks and bobolinks as well as many butterflies (such as Minnesota's endangered state butterfly, the Monarch) and other insects, Rebecca Kauten, manager of the integrated roadside vegetation management program at the University of Northern Iowa, told conservation writer Richard Conniff for a Yale Environment 360 blog.
Conniff explores various efforts in the United States and Europe to manage roadsides as wildlife habitat, but the most effective may be the simplest: "Many thousands of nest and nest sites are destroyed annually in southern and western Minnesota because of disturbance to our roadsides during spring and summer," says the Minnesota DNR.
Most of the disturbance is caused by hay mowing. The DNR says rural landowners and local road authorities should wait until August to mow roadsides, and, starting in September, leave at least 10 inches of growth (clipped "high") to nurture the next year's early nesters. The Minnesota Department of Transportation also encourages and subsidizes planting of roadside "living snow fences" that offer improved habitat as well as better highway safety. I addressed this topic a while back.
Auto travel has polluted our water and air, contributed to climate change and produced horrific levels of roadkill, both animal and human. Using our nation's millions of miles of roadsides for environmental restoration seems like the least we can do to reverse the damage.
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In recent years, we have become more aware of the problems we face with obesity and nutritional deficiency. These problems can be especially hard to deal with in situations of lower income. Due to rising cost and access to food (transportation and local store selection), it becomes even harder for lower income individuals to purchase fresh, nutrient rich food.
In efforts to mitigate healthier food access problems, the Federal Food Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) began an experimental program to allow participants to use their money at farmers markets. In 2011, The Minnesota Department of Agriculture introduced an electronic reader at farmers markets around Minnesota. At the time there were 14 farmers markets that accepted the program in the state.
As of this March, 39 farmers markets now accept the program. This large increase in a relatively short period of time shows the potential for positive changes in Minnesota’s healthy food accessibility problems. MN2020 Undergraduate Research Fellow Zack Avre published a USDA map highlighting Minnesota food desserts (areas that lack access to affordable, fresh, healthy foods). Hopefully, this expanding SNAP-farmers market partnership will help take some steps to alleviating the food desert issue in our state.
Along with working to help install electronic readers to increase access for low income individuals and families, The Minnesota Department of Agriculture's partnership with local growers, called Minnesota Grown, works to expand access and awareness to the public at large of local food opportunities in Minnesota. It features a free directory and information about in season produce. You've probably seen their commercials featuring Minnesota native and former Olympian Carrie Tollefson. A growing farmers market and local food scene in Minnesota and SNAP acceptance at farmers markets are important steps to helping overcome the food access and nutritional problems.
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The 2013 Minnesota legislative session saw a great first step in answering Governor Dayton’s call to achieve a sustainable energy future in our state that boosts our economy, creates jobs, and reduces money spent importing fossil and nuclear fuels.
The state’s first solar electricity standard requires all investor-owned utilities* to procure 1.5 percent of their electricity from solar resources by the year 2020. In addition, 10 percent of that electricity must be from solar projects less than 20 kilowatts in size. This ensures that residential and small commercial solar projects are included in the mix.
To help finance solar projects in the state, and reduce the cost of installations, state legislators also increased the system capacity limit on net-metered projects in investor-owned utility** territories from 40 kilowatts to 1,000 kilowatts. This expands the availability of a useful financing mechanism to larger solar projects, such as big box retail stores and warehouses with under-utilized empty roof space.
Legislators also initiated a process in which the Department of Commerce Division of Energy Resources will determine a value of solar rate to account for the full costs and benefits solar brings to the grid. This will ensure that solar projects receive a fair price for the unused electricity they send back to utilities.
Not everyone in Minnesota owns adequate roof or ground space to host a solar project, and not everyone can afford the upfront costs of a full solar project on their roof. Taking this to heart, legislators laid out guidelines for community solar garden programs in which a group of people and businesses can invest in an off-site solar project and receive credit for the electricity generated on their utility bill. This reduces the buy-in costs for customers and expands access to solar to renters, churches, businesses, public buildings and anyone whose roof or ground is not suitable for a solar array.
Finally, the cheapest energy we have is the energy we don’t generate. Energy efficiency represents the least-cost, greenest, and most effective energy resource in Minnesota. This year, legislators crafted Minnesota’s energy policy to prioritize energy efficiency as a resource preferred above all others. This will be critical in utility resource planning moving forward.
There’s still work to do in implementing these new policies and finding ways to further shape a sustainable energy future in Minnesota, but 2013 was a great first step.
Be sure to join tomorrow as I host an energy discussion at Minnesota 2020’s Tuesday Talk from 8-9.
* Cooperative and municipal utilities are excluded from the standard.
** The net metering capacity limit remains at 40 kilowatts for cooperative and municipal utilities.
When it comes to economic support programs for people in poverty, every legislative session brings a fresh debate over who “deserves” assistance and who doesn’t. One popular point of contention is that of asset limits—how much we account for a person’s possessions, and not just income, when it comes to determining need. For instance, what if someone is unemployed but has a car, house, or 401(1)k? Are they “poor” enough to qualify for government assistance?
At the moment, Congress is debating this very question as it haggles over the farm bill, because the farm bill includes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps). For the time being SNAP eligibility does not consider assets, only income, but some lawmakers want to change that. While this may seem practical on the surface, asset limits sometimes harm more than they help. Here are some reasons why:
Asset limits create administrative hassle and cost. Applicants have to show proof of their assets: if they own a car, how much is that car worth? What if a family is underwater on their mortgage—is their home truly an asset? Counties, who administer most assistance programs, have to collect, evaluate, enter, and verify all of this extra information. County governments, which are already strapped for resources, will have to deal with this mountain of paperwork.
Asset limits encourage shortsighted financial decisions. For instance, if retirement account is considered an asset, an applicant might be required to spend it down before receiving assistance. But if that applicant is only 50 years old, what happens when they’re 75 and their retirement savings have been depleted? What if an applicant is forced to trade their reliable, safe car for one whose value falls below the asset limit, but breaks down on the way to work?
Asset limits impair stability. Low-income families often find that asset limits prevent them from saving up enough to weather future financial difficulties, meaning that they are constantly on the brink of needing public assistance again. What may be a temporary need due to illness or unemployment can force someone into sabotaging decades of future stability.
Asset limits discourage people from applying for the supports they need. Whether it’s because of the work required to document all of their assets, or because their savings account is $100 over the limit, people who can benefit from assistance are less likely to seek it out. This is concerning because providing assistance is usually less costly to the community than dealing with the aftermath of poverty. SNAP, in particular, provides people with improved access to nutritious food. When that is lost, we pay for in terms of increased obesity, more seniors in nursing homes, and other health-care costs. When people hesitate to apply for medical insurance, we pay for their unreimbursed ER visits.
Of course, asset limits should (and do) vary by assistance program, and there can be such a thing as reasonable boundaries. But for programs like SNAP that lower public costs, generate local economic activity, and serve people in a limited, specific way (usually for a short period of time), asset limits may cost us more than they save. Sometimes what seems like a good idea on paper doesn’t work so well in practice—and this is one of those times.
What if you could live to be 100, remain mentally sharp, and avoid chronic disease through out it all?
Well for those living in one of the five “blue zones,” communities with the highest percentage of individuals living long full lives, this is a comparatively common experience.
Individuals from the Grecian island Ikaria, were found to be two and a half times more likely to reach age 90, lived approximately 10 years longer before getting cancer or cardiovascular disease, and have significantly lower rates of dementia than Americans.
So, what is the secret?
These five communities share nine features that Dan Buettner, the Minnesota-native author of ‘Blue Zones,’ argues are responsible for high concentrations of centenarians. Individuals in blue zones have a strong sense of purpose, utilize routines to minimize stress, eat less, have a bean heavy diet, drink moderately with friends, and exercise often through natural means such as yard work. They also tend to belong to a faith-based community, put their families first, and are surrounded by a healthy and supportive social circle.
What stands out amongst these nine features is the importance of community and social structure. That is why Albert Lea underwent the Blue Zone Vitality Project. They worked with Buettner on areas of healthy eating, exercise, sense of community, and purpose. Over the course of three years the average life expectancy increased by 3.1 years, they lost a collective 12,000 pounds, and city employee healthcare costs dropped by an astounding 40%.
Albert Lea is not the only Minnesotan community to undergo a dramatic transformation. Starting in 2012, Buettner worked with Salo, a Minnesota-based company. In just a year, Salo increased worker life expectancy by an average of 2.6 years. The changes were win-win, as lifestyle changes and boosted morale enabled Salo to increase their bottom line revenue by 19%.
The future is a bit grimmer for the rest of the country, however. Childhood obesity may cause today’s youth to be the first generation to have a shorter life expectancy than their parents. Like 80% of factors influencing average lifespan, obesity is based on lifestyle and is consequently largely influenced by one’s environment. According to the Framingham study, an individual’s chances of becoming obese increases by 57% when a friend is obese. However, like obesity, weight loss is influenced by community as well. The different blue zone projects give a model for creating a positive impact that could change this current trend.
If we are serious about securing the future of our youth, enabling our citizens to live longer happier lives, and cutting healthcare costs then it is time that we look to the preventive healthcare model illustrated by blue zone initiatives.